250x250 mehmet nesip ogun a7bbc34c cbef 4d09 9835 6a46a5deb949 

Prof. Dr. Mehmet Nesip Ogun is Rector
[President]


The University of Mediterranean Karpasia in Cyprus
Professor of International Relations and Political Science
with focus of Security and Terrorism Studies.  

 



DID WEST FAIL IN AFGHANISTAN?

Mehmet Nesip Ogun

Throughout NATO’s existence, the first and only invocation of the “Article-5 Collective Defense” clause was originated by a terrorist attack. After the infamous 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001, a US-led multinational military campaign -Operation Enduring Freedom- began in October 2001. The aim of the operation was to find Osama bin Laden and other high-ranking Al Qaeda members to put them on trial, to destroy the whole Al Qaeda organization, and to remove the Taliban regime which supported and gave safe harbor to Al Qaeda. Nevertheless, Osama bin Laden was killed on 02 May 2011 and some of the members were captured dead or alive by United States and coalition forces. During this operation, the Taliban regime collapsed and Al Qaeda was heavily damaged. On 5 December 2001 at a meeting convened in Bonn, Germany, UN officials came together with Afghan leaders and members of the international community to discuss the country’s future. At the Bonn Agreement it was decided that national security forces would be established and trained with the international help. UN Security Council Resolution 1386 provided for the creation of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and its deployment to Kabul and the surrounding area on 20 December 2001. Hence, the Security Council determined that the situation in Afghanistan constituted a threat to international peace and security.

On 12 January 2002, ISAF began to function and became fully operational on 18 February 2002. NATO’s primary objective in Afghanistan was “to enable the Afghan authorities to provide effective security across the country and ensure that the country can never again be a safe haven for terrorists”. Within this regard, international community wanted to achieve establishment of a secure environment, to assist in building sustainable and functional government, and to support the reconstruction and development process. However, there was a set of obstacles in Afghanistan delaying the efforts of the international community. This paper will analyze international community’s efforts and difficulties that they faced in Afghanistan.

The lack of a well-functioning central government, its distance from Europe and the increasing insurgent attacks that interfere with aid activities were the leading ones. It should never be forgotten that without a stable political environment and viable economy, Afghanistan cannot exist in today’s security environment (we are witnessing it today). It has proved us that without creating a modest level of security it is impossible to achieve diplomatic and economic objectives.

ISAF conducted a population centric counter-insurgency (COIN) strategy in partnership with the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) and provided support to the government as well as the international community in security sector reform, including mentoring, training and operational support to the Afghan National Army (ANA) and the Afghan National Police (ANP). Taliban’s taking over the whole country showed international community that ANSF was very weak and wasn’t ready to protect its citizens and the government.

Some member states which committed forces to the ISAF often imposed “national caveat” restrictionson the tasks those forces may undertake. These national restrictions generally prohibit the forces from engaging in combat operations. Furthermore, some governments did not permit their forces to be transferred to the southern and eastern parts of Afghanistan. These caveats were the biggest obstacles for force leaders who tried to operate flexibly with the forces under their command.

Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA) was one of the weakest governments in the world. It was troubled by pervasive corruption and lack of appropriate leadership and human capital. Afghan ministries lacked resources and were all too often permeated by corruption, entrenched bureaucracy and weak leadership. Afghanistan’s recent history was full of terror, violence and turmoil. Therefore, it was very normal for the people to feel insecure and doubting the individuals and groups which were in charge in the government. In order to achieve political goals, it was very important to gain trust of the Afghan people.  Because of the deficiencies in the ANP, the Afghan government was unable to ensure security and justice throughout the country. This resulted in a weakness in the legitimate use of force within the country. Another, and maybe one of the most important, action that weakened the Afghan state in establishing law and order was the significant assistance to local warlords provided by the coalition forces.

Tribal conflicts were also  the other impediment to the unity in Afghanistan. The wars in Afghanistan’s history caused shifts in the ethnic power balance and from time to time the Pashtun majority was challenged by the assertiveness of the minorities. However, the Taliban’s arrival led to a violent re-balancing of power back in favor of the Pashtuns.

The cultivation of poppy was another issue that undermined security. On the one hand, insurgency groups, warlords and criminal organizations surely benefited from the drug trade in Afghanistan. On the other hand, poppy cultivation was the main income source for the farmers in Afghanistan. Hamid Kharzai has underlined that the opium trade was just like a cancer that was even more hazardous than terrorism. The opium business was a widespread phenomenon that previously involved the Taliban and the Northern Alliance. Afghanistan provides most of the heroin (75%) in the global market and a huge amount of this heroin (95%) pours into the European market. Unfortunately, coalition forces in Afghanistan seemed to be slow in comprehending the implications of illicit drugs and their distribution within the country.

The Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRT) were the main organizational instrument for the ISAF’s contributions to the stabilization and development of Afghanistan. ISAF, through its PRTs, helped the Afghan authorities strengthen the institutions required for full establishment of good governance and rule of law, and to promote human rights. However, ISAF-sponsored reconstruction was largely disconnected from other efforts and most PRTs have failed to engage in a meaningful way with civilian relief organizations.

Two separate systems of education exist in Afghanistan. The older system is a religious one, taught by the mullahs, who conduct schools (madrassas) in the village mosques. They teach the religious precepts of the Koran. The other system was introduced in Afghanistan's 1964 constitution and provided for free and compulsory education at all levels. When Taliban took over control in 1996, the madrassas became the main source of primary and secondary education, with education being banned for girls. After the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001, the interim government received substantial international aid to restore the education system. The education system in Afghanistan, particularly for women and girls, requires a great deal of assistance if schools are expected to function as needed. With the Taliban’s take over the country, international community will see what Taliban is going to do in terms of education system.

In conclusion, security, governance, reconstruction and regional dynamics in Afghanistan carried challenging obstacles to the success of the NATO’s first out-of-Europe mission, which seemed to be a tool for the U.S. and the international community to stabilize the environment in Afghanistan. Nevertheless, this whole operation showed us that the mission was not successful.



__________________________________

BIOGRAPHY

Prof.Dr. Mehmet Nesip Ogun is Rector (President) at The University of Mediterranean Karpasia in Cyprus and Professor of International Relations and Political Science with focus of Security and Terrorism Studies.

He was a visiting scholar at Columbia University in New York in 2016-2017. He held the position of the Dean of the Faculty of Political Science at Girne American University in Cyprus in 2015-2016.

His doctoral dissertation examined terrorists’ use of the Internet. His research focused on the exploitation of Internet by terrorist organizations for their activities, terrorism in general, and propaganda was studied and some solutions were proposed. In addition, social network analysis was used to cover and identify the linkages of terrorist websites along with their contexts affiliated with terrorist purposes. 

During his career, He has been fortunate enough to also serve as a lecturer at North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Training Centers. He has also contributed to NATO’s Afghanistan and Kosovo Mission. Concurrently, he has taught at several universities and institutions as an adjunct professor. He carried out PhD research at Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, International Center for Terrorism Studies with Prof. Yonah Alexander.

He was also awarded a grant from NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division 68,000 Euro grant to conduct a NATO advanced training course in Macedonia on Terrorists’ Use of Cyberspace. He has edited the lecture presentations from that program in a book that was published by NATO IOS Press, Terrorist Use of Cyberspace and Cyber Terrorism: New Challenges and Responses.

He has organized and conducted a NATO Lessons Learned Workshop on NATO’s Counterterrorism and Counterinsurgency Experience in Afghanistan in November 2014. He has edited the proceedings of the workshop and NATO has published it on October 2015. 

He has extensively published books and articles on International Relations and Security Studies.

 

The International Law Institute is proud to offer a two-week seminar entitled Advanced Arbitration and Mediation from November 1st to November 12th, 2021. Course advisor, Ms. Anne Marie Whitesell, was Secretary General of the ICC International Court of Arbitration and is a Professor and Faculty Director of the Program on International Arbitration and Dispute Resolution at Georgetown University Law Center.

In today’s world, litigation is encumbered by high costs, long delays, and its limits in the international sphere. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR), in contrast, has grown markedly more popular in the last few decades as a cost-effective and time-efficient option to solve disputes. According to the Office of the United States Attorney General, ADR is critical for enabling government agencies to resolve disagreements before they escalate into contests that drain resources and impede work. In addition, earlier intervention provides valuable resources to discover systematic problems and creates a crucial opportunity to address needed changes. With a better comprehension of ADR options, government employees are better equipped to attract international business to their country and develop their own nation’s ADR system.

The first week of the seminar will focus on developing participant’s theoretical knowledge by introducing the basics of mediation and arbitration. Topics covered include an introduction to mediation and arbitration and their functional mechanisms, the decisions/awards of arbitrators and how they take effect, and the skills needed to be a successful mediator or arbitrator. The second week of the seminar will focus on developing practical experience through exercises.
The highlight of this week will be a simulated arbitration exercise. Participants will be given a hypothetical case and will make arguments as claimants and respondents. Experienced arbitrators will hear the case and provide feedback to participants.

This seminar includes theoretical and practical knowledge, drawing from the diverse instructors. The sessions will first address the theoretical knowledge needed to understand mediation and arbitration before transitioning into practical exercises, where participants will get hands on practice developing the skills necessary to be successful in the ADR process. The diverse backgrounds of participants will also allow for a stronger discussion of how ADR can best be utilized on an international scale.

The goal of this seminar is for participants to develop a stronger sense of what ADR is, how it functions, and how participants can utilize ADR to their professional benefit. This seminar is ideal for anyone who works in a governmental or international field or who works with contracts that may end up in a dispute. Participants will learn how to address disputes and how to draft contracts that prevent disputes in the first place, making the information in this seminar critical for those who work in any of the above-mentioned fields.

For more information on the seminar and the ILI course advisor, Ms. Anne Marie Whitesell, please visit our website here.

 

By: Hannah Emberts

The International Law Institute is pleased to introduce the new two-day seminar Understanding the Path to Zero from October 12th to October 13th, 2021. This two-day seminar will focus on how to institutionalize legally-binding climate change regulations in both domestic and international systems to reduce the burden of climate change. Drawing on his years of experience in the energy sector, Mr. Robert Lesnick, the course advisor for this seminar, will guide participants to an enhanced understanding of the International Energy Association Net Zero Forecast, including what Net Zero is and how it can be achieved.

At the current rate of carbon dioxide emissions, the planet will heat up between 6 and 10 degrees Fahrenheit between now and 2050. As a result of this potential danger, enforcing climate change obligations has been an increasing focus in the international sphere. While individual states have been making consistent progress in climate change reduction, international agreements play an important role in environmental preservation.

The first day of this seminar will focus on understanding the current state of climate change. Using terminology such as climate forcers, carbon dioxide equivalents, and greenhouse gases, Rob will discuss how the progression of global industrialization has contributed to the current climate crisis. Drawing from both historical and concurrent scientific data, this seminar will present a realistic perspective of climate change and potential climate change outcomes.

The second day of this seminar will discuss the importance of Net Zero and the global ability to meet this threshold. According to Rob, “Net Zero refers to a point in time where society emits a reduced amount of carbon dioxide and eventually nets the released gas to zero by doing other things to offset what society does emit by either sequestering the CO2 or by doing other things that offset that emission.” This seminar will cover steps that can be taken by businesses, governments, and society to reach Net Zero, including how to encourage international climate change agreements, how to utilize new technologies to decrease climate change, and how to promote accountability for violations of climate change commitments.

Course advisor Robert Lesnick has a wealth of knowledge of energy and consumption dynamics. He has worked in the oil and gas sector for the past 30 years, working at a major international oil company and the Oil Policy and Advisory Service Group at the World Bank. Rob will share his insights on Net Zero and the importance of institutionalizing climate change agreements to reduce the burden of industrialization on the earth.

Decision-makers and policy-makers alike will benefit from this unique seminar, which will inform them on the basics of Net Zero and forming international agreements. With course advisor Robert Lesnick’s extensive experience combined with the accessibility of a virtual educational setting, this seminar offers a valuable experience to learn about the challenges of achieving Net Zero in the current geopolitical sphere.

For more information on the seminar or course advisor, please visit our website here.

 

By: Marin Hein

 

The International Law Institute is proud to offer a one-week seminar entitled Procurement Integrity: Prevention, Investigation, and Prosecution of Fraud. Led by course advisors Ms. Sheryl Goodman and Mr. Tom Caulfield, the seminar will take place over live online sessions from September 13th to September 17th, 2021. Sheryl is the President of Procurement Integrity Consulting Services and has worked in law enforcement and criminal justice for over 30 years. Tom has spent over 38 years in federal government service and was formerly the Executive Director of Training for the Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency.

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime estimates that public procurement accounts for up to 30 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), making it the largest area of government spending. Corruption is believed to contribute to up to an average of 10-25 percent of a public contract’s value being lost. Hence, it is believed that public procurement is vulnerable to corruption and fraud and should be a primary concern for the integrity of public administration. Furthermore, corruption not only results in the loss of money, but also results in weakened institutions, eroded trust, and a lack of fair competition among the world economy. Due to the considerable amount of government spending that goes into public procurement as well as the consistent fraud that is seen across numerous studies, it is critical for everyone involved in public procurement to better understand how to identify, tackle, and prevent fraud.

In this seminar, Sheryl and Tom will highlight the critical information needed to better comprehend fraud in the field of public procurement. Sessions will cover the various types of fraudulent schemes that are seen today, the psychological profile of fraudsters, and a breakdown of the procurement process, including common weaknesses and controls that may be put in place to aid in the detection of fraud. Highlights of the program include several real-life case studies, where participants will have the opportunity to review prosecutions that have occurred and break down each individual case to discuss the perpetrator, the weaknesses in the procurement process, and more.

Tom and Sheryl work to customize this seminar for those who attend, working with specific laws from each country represented. The class will be tailored to address the laws of each attendant’s country of origin as well as how that may change their approach to procurement integrity. Sheryl and Tom will work with participants to engage them on public procurement laws in their home country to ensure that the seminar is relevant and applicable to all attendees.

The goal of this seminar is for participants to learn how to implement mitigation strategies and techniques to prevent fraud in public procurement. Upon completion, participants will know more about who commits fraud, when and where in the procurement process fraud is committed, and how to reduce corruption and fraud in public procurement.

Those who work in the field of auditing, who have oversight of contracts, and who work in the management of government expenditures are encouraged to attend this seminar. As Tom expresses quite comprehensively, fraud remains to be a critical financial issue within public procurement, and so, any individual who works with procurement or government spending would benefit immensely by learning more about how to identify and prevent fraud.

For more information on the seminar and the ILI course advisors, Ms. Sheryl Goodman and Mr. Tom Caulfield, please visit our website here.

 

By: Hannah Emberts

 

 

 Kenya Senate Leadership      Senate Speaker1 
Kenyan Senate Leadership and Hon. Rep. Tom Davis    Kenyan Senate Speaker - Rt. Hon. Kenneth Lusaka and Kim Phan, ILI Director   



The International Law Institute was honored to host two delegations from the Senate of Kenya at the ILI earlier this month. These training continue a relationship between the ILI and the Government of Kenya that goes back to the 1980s and has seen over 600 Kenyans trained at the ILI. The two programs were held in-person at the ILI from May 31st to June 9th, 2021 and represented the ILI’s first in-person training since March 2020.

The Leadership of the Senate of Kenya, including the Speaker of the Senate, the Majority and Minority Leaders, came to the ILI for an Executive Leadership program. This high-level program explored leadership within the context of the Parliament. Highlights included sessions entitled “Managing the Many Personalities of a Legislature for Performance,” “Legislative Oversight of the Executive,” and “Working with the Senate Leadership; Asserting the Power of the Senate.”

Members of the Senate Standing Committee on Justice, Legal, Affairs and Human Rights were joined by the Chairpersons of the Education Committee, the Labour and Social Welfare Committee, and the National Cohesion, Equal Opportunity, and Regional Integration Committee. Highlights of the program included sessions on Legislative Oversight of the Judiciary, the Fight against Corruption, Elections and Election Disputes, Legislative Administrative Operations, and Legislative Oversight of the Executive.

The Senators engaged the speakers with questions about the American systems and process, bringing in their experience with the Kenyan government. The ILI looks forward to a continue relationship and future collaboration with the Government of Kenya.

The ILI would like to extend a special thank you to Mike Russell, Rick Messick, Reb Brownell, Perry Bechky, Carlton Davis, Tom Rust, Thomas Hicks, Hon. Tom Davis, and Phil Kiko for their contributions in making the programs a success.


Waterfront Kenya Senate1 
Kenyan Senate Standing Committee on Justice Legal Affairs and Human Rights 

 


Note: ILI follows all safety protocols established through via the government of Washington, DC and the CDC.
 

 multilateral investment guarantee agency miga                           3 logo blue cmyk outlines plus 

 

The International Law Institute is proud to have entered into a Memorandum of Understanding with the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency [MIGA], a member of the World Bank, to jointly develop capacity building programs on political risk insurance, cross border transactions, dispute resolution, and governance. 

Signing on behalf of MIGA was Ethiopis Tafara, Vice President and Chief Risk, Legal and Administrative Officer for the World Bank Group’s Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA); accompanied by Arradhana Kumar-Capoor, Director and General Counsel, MIGA; and Chinwe Binitie, Co-Head of Partnerships and Senior Counsel. On behalf of the International Law Institute were Prof. Don Wallace Jr, Chairman and Robert Sargin, Executive Director.



PRESS RELEASE: 


WASHINGTON DC, June 7, 2021 – MIGA, a member of the World Bank Group, and the International Law Institute (ILI), a capacity building and technical assistance institute headquartered in Washington DC, have agreed to jointly develop and conduct a legal, economic, and policy capacity building curriculum and certificate program as related to political risk insurance (PRI). The collaborative effort aims to increase the institutional capacity of government officials, legal practitioners, private sector clients, and members of multilateral and other international development organizations.

The two institutions signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that envisages greater cooperation and the use of the institutions’ respective expertise to train MIGA clients and relevant stakeholders from developing countries on political risk insurance products, optimal structures for public-private partnerships requiring MIGA products, and other issues that arise in the context of political risk insurance, cross border transactions, dispute resolution, and governance.

“MIGA has a unique role as the only global multilateral political risk insurer and member of the World Bank Group,” said Ethiopis Tafara, MIGA’s Vice President & Chief Risk, Legal and Admin Officer and Vice President for Partnerships. “MIGA’s insurance provides an umbrella of deterrence for projects against disruptive government actions, and MIGA and ILI will work together to increase capacity for the extension of PRI in more developing countries.”

In many developing countries, private sector-led economic development continues to be hindered by security risks and political instability, lack of infrastructure, lack of access to finance, and inadequate workforce skills. MIGA’s PRI guarantees, when enhanced by technical assistance and capacity building to private sector clients, governments, and local practitioners can boost efforts to address these issues and spur further private sector investment.

"Through ILI’s work in developing countries around the globe, it has become evident that establishing project structures, transparency, robust standards, and adherence to the rule of law are key to successful private sector-led development,” said Professor Don Wallace, Jr, Chairman of ILI. "Ultimately, the goal of heightened cooperation between ILI and MIGA is to increase key capacity development so that more projects in developing countries have access to and qualify for political risk insurance guarantees, which will in turn lead to greater investment."

#

MIGA was created in 1988 as a member of the World Bank Group to promote foreign direct investment in emerging economies by helping mitigate the risks of restrictions on currency conversion and transfer, breach of contract by governments, expropriation, and war & civil disturbance; and offering credit enhancement to private investors and lenders.

Since its creation, MIGA has issued over US$59 billion in guarantees across 118 developing countries.



LINK: https://www.miga.org/press-release/miga-and-international-law-institute-cooperate-strengthen-capacity-developing


The International Law Institute is proud to support the German Cooperation implemented by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit [GIZ] GmbH [German Corporation for International Cooperation GmbH]; the Africa Free Trade Area; the International Law Institute South African Center for Excellence [ILI-SACE]; and leading international experts examining policies and strategies focused on enhancing African trade and industrial development.


Conferences are listed below:

   
 MAY 25 - 26, 2021          Enhancing Trade and Industrial Development                   
                                             Africa Free Trade Agreement: Game Changer for Africa's Growth


     MAY 25 - 27, 2021          African Continental Free Trade Area [AfCFTA] Virtual Conference


     CONTACT:                      WWW.ILI-SACE.ORG 


 Flyer AfCFTA Conference
 
 
 
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With deepest regrets, due to logistics beyond the control of the International Law Institute, the International Commercial Arbitration Master Class, presented by ILI to Russian legal practitioners, has been postponed.

ILI is working closely with Russian counterparts to reschedule this important program as soon as possible.

Inquiries regarding registrations and participation, may be made directed to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 


С глубоким сожалением сообщаем, что по независящим от Института Международного Права (ILI) логистическим причинам, мастер-класс по международному коммерческому арбитражу, предлагаемый Институтом Международного Права для российских юристов, перенесен.

Институт Международного Права работает со своими российскими партнерами, чтобы как можно скорее определить новую дату для этой важной программы.

Все запросы относительно регистрации и участия в программе можно отправлять по адресу This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

 

Russia Page 1 

 

 

 


The International Law Institute and Oxford University Press have finalized co-publication of the Second Edition of Bruno Ristau's critically important "Ristau's International Judicial Assistance: A Practitioner's Guide to International Civil and Commercial Litigation"



Stewart 9780199812714 CVRmech

Ristau's International Judicial Assistance

A Practitioner's Guide to International Civil
  and Commercial Litigation


Second Edition

David W. Bowker and David P. Stewart


ORDER HERE

[This item is not yet published. It is available for pre-orders and will ship on 31 May 2021.  It is also avialable as an EBOOK]

 

 

DESCRIPTION 

Legal practitioners of today are dealing with cross-border disputes in civil and commercial matters in an increasingly complex transnational legal environment. This edition of Bruno Ristau's multi-volume work International Judicial Assistance brings these complexities to the fore. The revised and updated material offers background, explanations, and practical advice on how to deal with the most important challenges and recent developments in the field of transnational litigation, including issues related to the choice of forum, choice of law, service of process, proof of foreign law, discovery of evidence, and enforcement of judgments.

Written by Stewart and Bowker, experts in public and private international law, this book offers insightful and comprehensive information on cross-border litigation by addressing issues in sequence as they are likely to be encountered in practice. A major focus is the mechanisms for international judicial cooperation and assistance, in particular those provided by regional and international arrangements such as the Hague Conventions on Service, Evidence and Apostilles, choice of court agreements, and the enforcement of judgments, as well as regional arrangements within the OAS and the EU. This book is a necessary addition for litigators in the U.S. and other common law jurisdictions who are involved in cross border disputes.

  • Provides up-to-date background, explanations, and practical guidance on how to deal with the most important challenges and recent developments in the field of transnational litigation
  • Focuses on the mechanisms for international judicial cooperation and assistance, provided by regional and international arrangements such as the Hague Conventions on service, evidence, apostilles, choice of court agreements, and the enforcement of judgments, as well as regional arrangements within the OAS and the EU
  • Features an advanced analysis of treaties, conventions, and statutes affecting current litigators in cross-border disputes

NEW TO THIS EDITION

  • Updates the first edition of Bruno Ristau's groundbreaking work, International Judicial Assistance, through the evolution of relevant law (domestic and international) and the increase in the number of transnational disputes involving parties of different countries
  • Includes a wide range of new topics, such as chapters on forum selection, choice of law, authentication, proof of law, enforcement of foreign judgments
  • The book is refocused and takes into account a number of significant developments in the law, including new treaties and conventions

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

David P. Stewart is a Professor at Georgetown University Law Center in Washington, D.C. His teaching includes the areas of public and private international law and foreign relations law. Over the course of his 32 year career he has served as Assistant Legal Adviser of the Office of the Legal Adviser at the U.S. Department of State in a number of substantive areas, including private international law, diplomatic law and litigation, international claims and investment dispute, law enforcement and intelligence), and human rights and refugees. Among his publications are the Digest of U.S. Practice In International Law (co-editor of seven volumes), International Human Rights In A Nutshell (co-author), International And Transnational Criminal Law (co-author, 5th ed. 2018), International Criminal Law In A Nutshell (2d ed. 2019), and The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act: A Guide For Judges (Fed. Jud. Cntr. 2d ed. 2019).

David W. Bowker is Chair of the International Litigation practice at Wilmer Hale. His previous roles included acting as the Attorney-Adviser for the Law of Armed Conflict in the Office of the Legal Adviser at the U.S. Department of State. He has extensive experience handling cases which involve parallel proceedings in multiple national jurisdictions, territorial disputes, human rights, armed conflict, hostage-taking, art and antiquities claims, cultural patrimony, national security, diplomacy, sanctions, and public policy. He is also Adjunct Professor of international law at the University of California at Berkeley School of Law and serves as Vice President of the American Society of International Law, and a member of the American Law Institute, the American Bar Association, and the International Bar Association.

Biological threats continue to challenge the health and security concerns of the global community. This interdisciplinary panel focused on the use and misuse of communication by governmental, inter-governmental, and non-governmental organizations. The distinguished panel of experts explored past experience, lessons learned, and offered recommendations for future communication policies and programs.